Zcash security technology is converting Ethereum remotely to Eth 2.0
The Ethereum consensus algorithm is not the only thing that changed when it launched Eth 2.0. The underlying crypto itself is undergoing an overhaul based on the leading research of the Crypto Company.
Called BLS12-381, the new elliptical coupling curve will securely coordinate transactions on the Eth 2.0 proof (PoS) network, while opening up opportunities for data savings and security technology solutions.
Currently, the extension of that curve is being put into the network with Ethereum 2537 Proposal Improvement. That EIP is expected to be distributed with the 10th hard fork protocol, Berlin, scheduled for July. .
As a hard fork, Berlin will add up to four non-backward compatible upgrades, two of which continue to be reviewed and may not eventually be included (all though that is still unlikely. with all four EIPs being implemented at different levels by each Ethereum client).
One test network, Yolo, which is performing dry operations without applications, is currently underway for EIP 2537 and another proposal, EIP 2315, will add simple subroutines to a virtual machine. Ethereum (EVM).
For Eth 2.0, EIP 2537 is an introduction to the exciting coding work that underlies the new network while answering the question Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin has been thinking from the early days of the network.
From 1.x to 2.0
In order to launch Eth 2.0, a technical bridge must exist between Ethereum with Eth 1.x and Eth 2.0 available.
BLS12-381 made one of such options by building an Eth 2.0 lite client, within the current Ethereum network, according to an article by Medium Medium by Ethereum developer Alex Stokes.
In short, Eth 2.0 will follow the steps, starting with Phase 0 in the third quarter of 2020. Phase 0 will begin with the beacon chain, a coordination mechanism for deposit investors. In PoS networks like Tron or EOS, funds are placed as a voting mechanism and encourage participation in verifying transactions.
Read more: Vitalik Buterin clarifies comments on Eth 2.0's expected launch date
Eth 1.x is based on the Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm and has a completely separate cryptographic scheme called the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), also used by Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.
But to connect PoW and PoS networks, a common tongue is needed.
That's what EIP 2537 does - by providing an encryption compiler between two networks in what's called pre-precompilation of the basic primitives of Eth 2.0. This precompilation makes a lite customer possible.
In fact, a small customer will be built as a smart contract inside the EVM. Its main purpose, with the client's limited functionality, would be to move ether (ETH) to the new chain, a prerequisite to getting people onto the new network.
Additionally, Layer 2 (L2) solutions for scaling Ethereum and Eth 2.0 can be built on lite clients, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin said in an April Ethereum Magicians post.
If we have that, then an eth2-in-eth1 client is really not that difficult, which opens up opportunities for applications that use eth2 as an available tool (for example, things like Plasma but stronger), Buterin writes.
Find the right primitive
Ethereum's next iteration has a much bigger ambition than ECDSA can handle. Luckily, 10 years of cryptocurrency research spawned at least one topic: cryptography itself, Cloudflare cryptographer Nick Sullivan said in an interview with CoinDesk. New curves like the BLS12-381 prove as much.
Elliptic curves have been around since the mid-1980s, according to Mr Sullivan. The problem is that they are somewhat limited in what they can do. They can effectively perform classic public key operations: digital signature, encryption and key agreement.
Additionally, the couple's friendly curves invented in the early 2000s provide smart security measures that apply intelligently to blockchains, Sullivan said.
Invented in 2017, cryptographer by Sean Bowe Crypto Company BLS12-381, a variant of the BLS curve invented by three crypto pioneers in 2003, probably the The most effective for most currencies today. His curves, and others like it, are the reason blockchains are so expandable.
The BLS12-381 criterion is a special type of elliptical curve (couple-friendly curves), which allows coding primitives such as SNARK and vector commitment plans, toss Bowe said in the email. These primitive people are very helpful to improve scalability and privacy in blockchain projects.
BLS and Eth 2.0
For Eth 2.0, the advantage can be broken into three parts: data savings, privacy and interoperability.
First, BLS-style signatures keep the computational light needed by pairing cryptographic signatures to verify transactions, according to Ethereum researcher Carl Beekhuizen in an Ethereum Foundation blog post.
If 10% of all ETH ends, there will be ~ 350,000 validators on eth2. This means that an era-valuable signature will be 33.6 megabytes, equivalent to ~ 7.6 gigabytes per day. In this case, all claims of eth1 status size reaching 1TB back in 2018 will be true in the case of eth2, less than 133 days (signature based only).
(For reference, that's equivalent to almost three times the weight of the current Bitcoin blockchain.)
BLS12-381 also allows Eth 2.0 to develop evidence without knowledge in a more natural way: ETH's security variants may be derived from Eth 2.0. In fact, BLS12-381 has been hard forked into the Zcash protocol with the Sapling 2018 update in the form of stronger encryption primitives.
Moreover, the use of ECC technology on Ethereum highlights the close relationship between Buterin and Zooko Wilcox, Zcash co-founder and ECC CEO. Both ECC and Zcash teams have shown past interest in connecting the two technologies.
Read more: Zcash will get a gateway to the Ethereum ecosystem from DeFi
Third, the proposal to open up interoperability between different chains like Filecoin, Chia or Algorand and Eth 2.0, a long-standing promise of many other blockchain networks like Polkadot, has announced its main network launch in the beginning. this month.
Eth 2.0's ability to connect with other projects - particularly non-Bitcoin projects - can be done in a number of different ways: Perhaps Ethereum shares its value across different chains or has it would suck technology from other projects, take their hats.
Either way, Cloudflare's Sullivan still is impressed by math:
This is a really fascinating curve on how things happen - from mathematicians and cryptographers writing about it in academic papers and then everyone in the technical world started doing it and Test it and then it is put into projects and protocols and then becomes part of society. And then you end up in this position, where there are so many different options that it's hard to know exactly which one to choose and why.